Friday, August 27, 2010

New Fragment of Greg.-Aland 2491

In 2006 I noted the existence of a fragment with Matt 3:16-4:21 in Columbia University Rare Book and Manuscript Library, shelfmark Med/Ren Frag. 49 (image shows fol. 1v).

According to the notes in the internal library file, the fragment was taken from a manuscript copied in a monastery at Mt. Athos. Another note attributed to Dr. Erich Junkelmann, dated 1936, reads: "the Prussian State Library, Berlin, also acquired some leaves of this set." An anonymous note in the folder reads: "The other leaf presented to Dr. Chickering, Jamaica High School, 18 October 1938."

After consultation with Michael Welte of the INTF in Münster the fragment was identified as a leaf from Greg.-Aland 2491, and I sent this information back to the curator of the holding institution. This now meant that different parts of this MS had been located in four different places – Berlin, Bern, Durham and New York (36 folios are still in Berlin, and another 24 folios are in Bern, whereas there were now two folios known in the US, in Columbia University Rare Book and Manuscript Library and in Duke University Library, respectively). Moreover, I assumed that "the other leaf presented to Dr. Chickering" is the one in Duke that contains Matt 22:31-23:10.

I subsequently blogged about this fragment last year here as I announced the "Catalogue of Greek Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the Collections of the United States of America" edited by Nadezhda Kavrus-Hoffmann, of which several installments have been published in the journal Manuscripta (Brepols). Kavrus-Hoffmann had indicated in the first part of the catalogue (published 2005) that this fragment was "not in Aland" (i.e., had not been assigned a Greg.-Aland number).

As noted, however, I have reported back to Consuelo Dutschke, Curator of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts at Columbia University, about this and other items in 2006, and suggested that she should add the updates and some corrections to this and other items. Apparently, she did not do anything with the information I provided (for example, the Greg.-Aland number is still not indicated in the digital catalogue of the Scriptorium (founded by Dutschke and her collegaue), and neither the fragments of the same MS in other institutions). Kavrus-Hoffmann, however, has told me that she will of course add the new information to her addenda and corrigenda.

In any case, the Liste dates the MS to the 12th cent. whereas Kavrus-Hoffmann dates it to the late 13th or early 14th cent. in her catalogue.

Very recently I was contacted by Christopher Moss of the Department of Art and Archaeology at Princeton University. He wrote to me:
Having seen your very interesting post identifying the fragment of Aland 2491 at Columbia University, I thought that you might be interested to know that our newly published catalogue of Greek manuscripts in Princeton (just released this month) identifies Princeton University Library, Princeton MS. 63, as another fragment of this manuscript, specifically, the eight folios that immediately followed the Columbia fragment, containing Matthew 4:21–5:17.

This interesting piece of information about the Princeton folios was already mentioned in the comment to my original blogpost last year made by Nadezhda Kavrus-Hoffmann. She then also mentioned the new catalogue of the Princeton collection that was in preparation. Unfortunately, this fragment has been assigned a new Greg.-Aland number at some point, Greg.-Aland 2850 (dated to the 11th cent.), and so has the Duke fragment in Durham (Greg.-Aland 2617) but they are the same MS as Greg.-Aland 2491. (I note that in the VMR online Liste, the Columbia and Princeton fragments need to be added to the entry Greg.-Aland 2491. [TW: This is now updated])

The Princeton catalogue is expected to be published in just a few days – more information about it is found here. Moss has been kind enough to send me a review copy.

According to the entry for Princeton MS. 63, it was acquired in February 1940 from Dr. Junkelmann in Munich, who may have purchased it on Mount Athos. The catalogue further states with reference to the Bern catalogue edited by P. Andrist that the leaves in Bern and some of the folios in Berlin were also acquired from Junkelmann in Munich.

This made me curious about this Dr. Junkelmann, who sold fragments of this manuscript to Berlin, Bern, Columbia and Princeton and provided information in the form of notes about the provenance, etc, today kept in the various library files. Apparently, Junkelmann was an art historian and music composer who lived first in Leipzig and later in Munich.

The eight folios in Princeton include one folio that followed the Columbia fragment containing 4:21–5:17. The seven other folios contain Matthew 11:17–14:15. The editors of the new catalogue, Sofia Kotzabassi and Nancy Patterson Ševčenko, date the MS to the 12th century in accordance with the Kurzgefasste Liste, whereas Kavrus-Hoffmann, as noted, dates it to the late 13th or early 14th cent. The catalogue also includes a plate of the MS.

Update: Ulrich Schmid reports that the VMR online Liste has now been updated as far as additional items are concerned (although the dating issue is under review).

Monday, August 23, 2010

Coptic Unicode Font

The International Association of Coptic Studies commissioned a unicode font which is now available in a stable version called Antinoou. The beta version was known as Keft. I have created a digital keyboard which is free and works well with MS Word. You can download it from my Coptic digital resources webpage. In a few months, I hope to update the keyboard to include Old Nubian characters.

UPDATE: This is apparently the final beta version, and not the final release. A few minor wrinkles remain to be ironed out.

Friday, August 20, 2010

Dan Wallace’s “The Conspiracy Behind the New Bible Translations”

Dan gives a good introduction to KJV-onlyism here, and deals with the conspiracy theories behind it:

I’m not sure when the article was first written, but TC-Alternate-List implies it is new and offers a counterpoint here:

Thursday, August 19, 2010

Digitized Greek NT MSS of Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana pt. 1

Digital images of GNT MSS of Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana pt. 1

Hugh Houghton has drawn my attention to the digital database of the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana where one can find nearly all of the Plutei GNT codices, which I have indiced below. I divide this index into two parts because of the maximum number of tags allowed to a blogpost. The second part follows immediately below this post.

Cod. Plut. IV.1 = GA 454

Cod. Plut. IV.5 = GA 455

Cod. Plut. IV.29 = GA 457

Cod. Plut. IV.30 = GA 456

Cod. Plut. IV.31 = GA 458

Cod. Plut. IV.32 = GA 459

Cod. Plut. VI.2 = GA L113

Cod. Plut. VI.5 = GA 832

Cod. Plut. VI.7 = GA L114

Cod. Plut. VI.8 = GA 1976

Cod. Plut. VI.11 = GA 182

Cod. Plut. VI.13 = GA 363

Digitized Greek NT MSS of Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana pt. 2

Digital images of GNT MSS of Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana pt. 2

Cod. Plut. VI.14 = GA 183

Cod. Plut. VI.15 = GA 184

Cod. Plut. VI.16 = GA 185

Cod. Plut. VI.18 = GA 186

Cod. Plut. VI.21 = GA L115

Cod. Plut. VI.23 = GA 187

Cod. Plut. VI.24 = GA 364

Cod. Plut. VI.25 = GA 188

Cod. Plut. VI.26 = GA 833

Cod. Plut. VI.27 = GA 189

Cod. Plut. VI.28 = GA 190

Cod. Plut. VI.29 = GA 191

Cod. Plut. VI.30 = GA 192

Cod. Plut. VI.31 = GA L116

Cod. Plut. VI.32 = GA 193

Cod. Plut. VI.33 = GA 194

Cod. Plut. VI.34 = GA 195

Cod. Plut. VI.36 = GA 365 not available.

Cod. Plut. VII.9 = GA 2035

Cod. Plut. VII.29 (fol. 193-224 = GA 2052

Cod. Plut. VIII.12 = GA 196

Cod. Plut. VIII.14 = GA 197

Cod. Plut. IX.10 = GA 2007

Cod. Plut. X.04 = GA 1919

Cod. Plut. X.06 = GA 1920

Cod. Plut. X.07 = GA 1921

Cod. Plut. X.09 = GA 1977

Cod. Plut. X.19 = GA 1922 not available

Cod. Plut. XI.06 = GA 834

Cod. Plut. XI.07 = GA 1978

Cod. Plut. XI.18 = GA 836

Monday, August 16, 2010

Sinaiticus Facsimile by Hendricksons

Hendrickson Publishers are now advertising the new facsimile edition of Codex Sinaiticus to be released in November.

Retail: $799.00
Size: 13.5 x 16.5 inches
Binding: cloth with slipcase
Pages: 828
Pub Date: November 2010
ISBN: 9781598565775
ISBN-13: 9781598565775

From the advertisement:
The Codex was hand-written in Greek by fourth-century scribes, only 300 years after the time of the New Testament, making it one of the earliest and most reliable witnesses to the biblical text. It contained the Old and New Testaments in Greek, the text adopted by early Greek-speaking Christians.

The Codex was preserved for centuries at the monastery of St. Catherine’s, Mount Sinai, until Constantin von Tischendorf drew worldwide attention and notoriety to it in 1844. In the years following, its pages were divided and dispersed. Now, over 160 years later, after an extraordinary and historic collaborative effort by the British Library, the National Library of Russia, St. Catherine’s Monastery, Leipzig University Library, and Hendrickson Publishers, all the extant pages of Codex Sinaiticus have been brought together in print form to a worldwide audience in this handsomely bound, one-of-a kind, facsimile edition.

Drawing on the expertise of leading scholars, conservators, and curators, and painstakingly photographed using the latest high-quality digital technology and a careful imaging process, this facsimile provides a life-like view of the original pages of the Codex. The delicate beauty of this important text—its parchment, inks, and scars, all visible in incredible detail—allows the fascinating textual history of the Christian Bible to come alive in a fresh, meaningful way. The generous trim size, protective cloth covering, and slipcase make this facsimile an attractive part of any biblical scholar’s library. Accompanied by a 32-page booklet, the Codex would be a stunning addition to a church, university, or seminary library, as well as to a museum or personal collection.

What texts can I find in the Codex Sinaiticus?
As it survives today, Codex Sinaiticus comprises just over 400 large leaves of prepared animal skin, each of which measures (13.6 inches) wide by 380mm (15 inches) high. On these parchment leaves is written around half of the Old Testament and Apocrypha (the Septuagint), the whole of the New Testament, and two early Christian texts not found in modern Bibles. Most of the first part of the manuscript (containing most of the so-called historical books, from Genesis to 1 Chronicles) is now missing and presumed to be lost. .

The Septuagint includes books which many Protestant Christian denominations place in the Apocrypha. Those present in the surviving part of the Septuagint in Codex Sinaiticus are 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, 1 & 4 Maccabees, Wisdom and Sirach. .

The number of the books in the New Testament in Codex Sinaiticus is the same as that in modern Bibles in the West, but the order is different. The Letter to the Hebrews is placed after Paul’s Second Letter to the Thessalonians, and the Acts of the Apostles between the Pastoral and Catholic Epistles. .

The two other early Christian texts are an Epistle by an unknown writer claiming to be the Apostle Barnabas, and ‘The Shepherd’, written by the early second-century Roman writer, Hermas.

Friday, August 13, 2010

NT Papyri from Oxyrhynchus

Of the 127 listed New Testament papyri fully fifty-nine come from Oxyrhynchus, and these comprise portions of the following texts:

Matthew (13 copies), Luke (2 copies), John (15 copies), Acts (4 copies), Romans (4 copies), 1 Corinthians (2 copies), 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, 1&2 Thessalonians, Hebrews (4 copies), James (4 copies), 1 Peter, 1 John, Jude, and Revelation (3 copies).

Matthew (P1 = P. Oxy 2; P19 = P. Oxy 1170; P21 = P. Oxy 1227; P35 = PSI 1; P70 = P. Oxy 2384 & PSI inv. CNR 419 & 420; P71 = P. Oxy 2385; P77 = P. Oxy 2683; P101 = P. Oxy 4401; P102 = P. Oxy 4402; P103 = P. Oxy 4403; P104 = P. Oxy 4404; P105 = P. Oxy 4406; P110 = P. Oxy 4494),
Luke (P69 = P. Oxy 2383; P111 = P. Oxy 4495),
John (P5 = P. Oxy 208 & 1781; P22 = P. Oxy 1228; P28 = P. Oxy 1596; P36 = PSI 3; P39 = P. Oxy 1780; P90 = P. Oxy 3523; P93 = PSI inv. 108; P106 = P. Oxy 4445; P107 = P. Oxy 4446; P108 = P. Oxy 4447; P109 = P. Oxy 4448; P119 = P. Oxy 4803; P120 = P. Oxy 4804; P121 = P. Oxy 4805; P122 = P. Oxy 4806),
Acts (P29 = P. Oxy 1597; P48 = PSI 1165; P112 = P. Oxy 4496; P127 = P. Oxy 4968),
Romans (P10 = P. Oxy 209; P26 = P. Oxy 1354; P27 = P. Oxy 1355; P113 = P. Oxy 4497),
1 Corinthians (P15 = P. Oxy 1008; P123 = P. Oxy 4844),
2 Corinthians (P124 = P. Oxy 4845),
Galatians (P51 = P. Oxy 2157),
Philippians (P16 = P. Oxy 1009),
1 Thessalonians (P65 = PSI 1373);
1-2 Thessalonians (P30 = P. Oxy 1598),
Hebrews (P13 = P. Oxy 657 & PSI 1292; P17 = P. Oxy 1078; P114 = P. Oxy 4498; P126 = PSI 1497),
James (P20 = P. Oxy 1171; P23 = P. Oxy 1229; P54; P100 = P. Oxy 4449),
1 Peter (P125 = P. Oxy 4934),
1 John (P9 = P. Oxy 402),
Jude (P78 = P. Oxy 2684), and
Revelation (P18 = P. Oxy 1079; P24 = P. Oxy 1230; P115 = P. Oxy 4499).

Just for information, and in case my adding up doesn't add up (or have missed something).

Thursday, August 12, 2010

Martin Rösel and Translation Culture (LXX 6)

For general orientation to this series of posts see here.

Martin Rösel, ‘Schreiber, Übersetzer, Theologen. Die Septuaginta als Dokument der Schrift-, Lese- und Übersetzungskulturen des Judentums’ in Die Septuaginta - Texte, Kontexte, Lebenswelten: Internationale Fachtagung veranstaltet von Septuaginta Deutsch (LXX.D), Wuppertal 20.-23. Juli 2006 (ed Martin Karrer & Wolfgang Kraus; WUNT 219; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2008), 83-102.

Rösel surveys the evidence and understanding of translation and bilingualism in the Hebrew Bible and extra-biblical sources in pre-Hellenistic and Hellenistic times. He further investigates the social environment within which the Greek translation arose, highlighting the complexity of having multiple translations, revisions and geographical locations to consider.

Rösel takes a balanced view being sympathetic to a library or museum provenance by learned translators, but without excluding the possibility that the translators also moved in "synagogal" circles from where many common words such as διαθήκη for ברית, νόμος for תורה and δικαιοσύνη for צדקה arose. He also argues for the existence of word-lists or concordances used in the translation task (94-95).

Μυρτώ Θεοχάρους

Monday, August 09, 2010

Interview with Maurice Robinson

Bob Hayton of the KJV Only Debate Blog tells me there is a three part interview with Maurice Robinson being posted this week.

Here is the link to the first part of the interview.

Here is the link that by Wednesday will show all three parts of the interview.

Bob also told me that it was in the comments on this blog that he and Maurice met up and from that planned this interview – everything we blog makes circles on the water.

Byzantine Reader's Edition Is Out!


I am pleased to announce that a new GNT reader's edition is out: The Greek New Testament For Beginning Readers: Byzantine Textform by Maurice A. Robinson, William G. Pierpont and John Jeffrey Dobson has been published by VTR Publications. ISBN 978-3-941750-24-1

From the preface written by Dodson:
The very existence of other “Reader’s Editions” of the Greek New Testament has demonstrated the usefulness of this approach. This of course raises the question: Why, then, is another Reader’s Edition needed for the Greek New Testament, and what more can it offer? First, The Greek New Testament For Beginning Readers: Byzantine Textform is the only Reader’s Edition that is based upon the Byzantine Textform (which agrees some ninety-four percent of the time with other Greek New Testament editions). Further, it is the only Reader’s Edition that offers Greek-to-English definitions for every word in the Greek New Testament, as well as parsing information for every verbal form therein. This includes footnoted coverage for uncommon words, along with coverage in the appendices for words commonly committed to memory during the first year of study (words occurring fifty times or more).

Also of significance, The Greek New Testament For Beginning Readers: Byzantine Textformis the only Reader’s Edition that resides in the public domain, thus providing complete flexibility in academic and educational environments regarding how the text and lexical/parsing data are quoted and utilized. Finally, this edition combines some of the best features of other editions: a readable font similar to that used in modern beginning Greek grammars, English section headings that divide the text into recognizable, less intimidating segments, and word frequency counts to help readers decide which vocabulary words deserve further memorization.

Apparently, the US/Canada list price is lower ($35) than the European Euro price, with further discounts through Amazon or other outlets.

Wednesday, August 04, 2010

Sinai Arabic 154 and Paris arabe 6725

Sinai Arabic 154, from the 9th century, containing Acts and the Catholic Epistles, has been published by Margaret Dunlop GIBSON (Studia Sinaitica VII, 1899). Mrs GIBSON's publication could not include Acts 7:49b-9:30, because 6 folios were lacking when she was staying in the Sinai monastery.

In Oriens Christianus 12-14 (1925), p. 218, Georg GRAF mentions that these 6 folios had been seen in Cairo, together with some other pieces of Arabic Christian manuscripts, by H. Dr. GROTE (who died in 1919). But, GRAF adds, "über der jetzigen Verbleib der Mehrzahl dieser Fragmente ist mir nichts bekannt" (see also GRAF's Geschichte der christlichen arabischen Literatur, p. 173).

When examining a microfilm of Paris arabe 6725 at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, I located the images of the 6 lacking folios of Sinai Arabic 154. The kind of Arabic writing found in this manuscript made it difficult to read for me. With the help of two friends, Jean VALENTIN and Mohammed Wali AIT, who know Arabic better than I, I undertook to make a French translation of these Arabic folios. For text-critical purposes, this translation is as litteral as possible. I can send this translation by E-mail on simple request to any reader of this blog. Perhaps one day I will publish the Arabic text ?

An increased knowledge of the text of Acts in Sinai 154 can be important to help us understand the textual history of the Syriac Apostolos. Sinai 154 was translated from a Syriac Apostolos. But at many places, the Arabic translation shows that its Syriac Vorlage must have been different from the Peshitta.

Paris arabe 6725 gave me another surprise. In another part of the microfilm, I found images of another fragmentary Arabic translation of the Acts of the Apostles (9:15-13:?), also from the 9th century, and from a Syriac Vorlage. This translation is sometimes close to the one published by Erpenius from a later manuscript (12th century), but sometimes it goes its own way. So we now have, including Sinai Arabic 151, at least three different translations of Acts, all made from the Syriac in the 9th century, if not earlier.

Much remain to be studied about the Arabic Apostolos. As far as I know, at the present time nobody is able to say even how many Arabic translations were made (there were also translations from Greek, from Coptic, and from Latin). A whole field of investigations for younger searchers ...

Tuesday, August 03, 2010

Carlson on Galatians in Swanson

Stephen Carlson has posted a helpful series of errata lists for Swanson's work on Galatians:

Galatians in P46

Galatians in B

Galatians in 01

Galatians in A

Galatians in C

Galatians in D

Galatians in 1424

One fairly consistent issue seems to be Swanson's treatment of corrections, which leaves something to be desired in terms of clarity and accuracy.

complutensis 1 and 2

Complutensis 1 and 2 are two important early manuscripts of the Spanish Vulgate. They were nearly utterly destroyed during the Spanish Civil War. But, good news ! A film had been made of both manuscripts. From this film, a microfilm was made, and acquired by EMML in Minnesota. This acquisition seems to have been forgotten, and recently someone "rediscovered" it in a vault in St John's Institute in Collegeville. You need not go to Sinai to find this kind of event, it can happen even in the US ! It seems that from this microfilm digital images are soon to be made, and that they will be made available for the academic worldwide research.

Sources: St John's Institute; also an article in "he Medievalist".